The standardized commercial product of the culture industry, produced for the masses and therefore consumed primarily by non-elite groups such as the working, lower, and middle class. These are alleged to reflect the dominant ideology and to produce conformity among these classes.
There are two opposing sociological arguments in relation to popular culture:
1. Popular culture is used by the elites to control those below them because it dulls people’s minds, making them passive and easy to control.
2. Popular culture is a vehicle for rebellion against the culture of dominant groups.
Popular culture is typically bound up with the products and technology of mass culture, but its creativity consists in its ways of using these products and technologies, not in producing them.
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Fiske, John (2010): Popular Culture in Lentrichchia, Frank–McLaughlin, Thomas: Critical Terms for Literary Study. The University of Chicago Press, 1995, p. 321 - 335.
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